The dope people are smoking today is a lot stronger than it was in the eighties. What’s more, people are growing their own supplies rather than relying on dealers, making marijuana a very cheap recreational drug… but there may be a higher price to pay.
Cannabis – also known as marijuana, pot, grass, ganga, dope, skunk, reefer, joint, draw, etc. Most people call it weed, because that’s what it actually is – a weed. Left to its own devices it will flourish anywhere. In the illegal cottage industry cannabis plantations we see on TV news programmes and cop shows, plants are cultivated and ready to retail in less than three months.
Cannabis/marijuana on its own is not as self-destructively addictive as heroin or methamphetamine or crack, or a host of other substances, including cocaine, ecstasy and speed, all drugs that target and rot specific areas of the brain. Marijuana may well be less harmful, but it’s certainly not harmless and the long-term effects can be just as pernicious.
Smokers don’t ever inject cannabis, so there isn’t the same risk of infection associated with heroin addict’s dirty needles and HIV/AIDS. It’s impossible to overdose because before you’ve had too much you fall asleep, which prevents you from smoking any more. But like any other psychoactive substance, smoking weed does affect the brain. It gets you stoned (which is the point of smoking it) and thus puts immediate personal ambitions on hold. Stoned, the user’s motto is never do today what you can put off until tomorrow! Consequently, with habitual users, nothing ever gets done. There is also a considerable body of evidence that suggests it affects the brain’s ability to remember.
Cannabis gives you the munchies, which, for the uninitiated, means you will experience cravings for food, and in ridiculously large amounts. Dope is the mother of late night feasts!
But it’s also a useful and effective painkiller – sufferers of multiple sclerosis swear by it. Cannabis is widely believed to be beneficial not just for treating pain but also as a useful blocker for epilepsy.
Even occasional smokers know the drug is a barrier between them and the unfairness and injustice of the real world. Stoned, problems are temporarily forgotten. Smokers retreat into their own imaginary worlds where the same ‘creative’ and fantastical thoughts go round and round in their heads.
In the United States, 24 states now allow the cultivation and sale of cannabis, although in most, it’s use is limited to medical marijuana, grown and sold by licensed growers and registered dealers. America is slowly coming round to the understanding that like prohibition, the war on this drug has been lost and legislatures have caved in to popular and democratic demand by decriminalising it. But new studies have confirmed that even occasional marijuana use causes laziness and in both the short and long-term, saps motivation.
To properly understand the effects of the recreational use of cannabis, we must understand that there is a difference between feeling lazy and being stoned. Smokers get stoned, but recover after 12 to 24 hours in much the same way most occasional drinkers recover from the effects of alcohol.
But lazy is not the same as stoned and it would be wrong to assume that cannabis is the cause of laziness in people who are already lazy. It might be more accurate to suggest that lazy people are more likely to smoke cannabis. Nonetheless, it is an important question to ask – does smoking weed make people who are not normally lazy, lazy?
There is plenty of data showing that habitual users become listless and lose the motivation they once had.
It’s ironic that something perceived as a social drug, something traditionally shared with others – joints are often passed around – eventually results in anti-social behaviour. A user’s circle of friends very quickly becomes limited to other smokers – they go out less frequently and eventually just sit at home getting stoned – conversation becomes the exception rather than the rule as more and more joints are rolled. Regular users are averse to trying new experiences, preferring the comfortable familiarity of their own repetitive and familiar thoughts. A study carried out by Imperial College London found that marijuana use leads to individuals becoming withdrawn, lethargic and apathetic. Regular use can also lead to poor decision-making as projects are put on hold, important chores neglected and personal deadlines ignored.
At the neurological level, long-term use of the drug destroys dopamine, the feel-good chemical in the brain that inspires a spirit of ‘get-up-and-go.’ Dopamine levels in the striatum, a part of the brain involved in motivation, were found to be lower in regular cannabis users.
In another study, carried out at the University of California, researchers found that those who smoked cannabis regularly also ended up with lower paying, less skilled and less prestigious jobs than those who were not regular smokers.
Users have told me that smoking it helps them to ‘chill’ and ‘mellow out’. Nearly all users deny that cannabis is addictive and that they could stop any time, but I do not believe this is true. On the other hand, I have spoken to many former users who told me that they simply grew out of it, which I do believe to be true. I have met cigarette smokers who have said the same thing – they simply decided one day that they didn’t want or need to smoke any more and just stopped, without any great effort.
A question I used to ask every dope smoker I met – one which was designed to make them think logically and sensibly about addiction – was this: If you mislaid a ten pound note, how long would you spend looking for it? Five minutes, ten minutes possibly? But if you mislaid that last bit of weed, how long would you spend looking for it? The answer was always the same – they would turn the house upside down and inside out looking for it, even searching in the dustbin before they gave up. Nearly all of them admitted they had gone through ashtrays looking for any un-smoked particles, pulling apart joint ends to find enough to build one more. Then I’d ask them again if they still thought they weren’t addicted.
Having said all that, cannabis is cheap and unlike users of the more dangerous drugs such as heroin or crack, smokers don’t go around bashing up old ladies or shoplifting to finance their habit. A lot of users now grow their own and have a maybe a couple of plants hidden under the stairs. Growing a marijuana plant for personal use means getting stoned costs next to nothing. These days, the police will likely ignore single plants because they are far too busy arresting celebrities.
Many users admit that getting stoned can cause feelings of paranoia and when the drug is not available, they sometimes experience feelings of anxiety. Even so, withdrawal symptoms are not nearly as bad as those associated with heroin, methamphetamine or even cocaine. However, it’s difficult to get to sleep for a week or so after coming off cannabis and it can take weeks for more finely tuned motor skills to return to normal. After giving up, users can experience feelings of mild depression and some have confessed to irritability, short-temperedness and even short bouts of furious anger.
So it seems from behavioural observation that cannabis use does make people lazy, and it does affect motivation in the long-term. All we need to confirm the theory are some laboratory rats to experiment on. It just so happens that 30 rats have been trained by researchers to complete a simple and rewarding task in order to find out if they became lazy if they were stoned.
The rats were given a choice of performing an easy or difficult task to earn a sugary treat. They could nudge either of two levers with their nose to signal whether they wanted the easier or more difficult challenge. Choosing the easy challenge resulted in a reward of one sugar pellet but choosing the more difficult challenge resulted in a reward of two sugar pellets.
Most of the rats repeatedly chose the more difficult task and earned the larger reward, thereby proving they were capable of completing the more difficult challenge. But when they were given THC (tetrahydrocannabinol – the active compound in cannabis) they switched to the easier option, despite earning a smaller reward, and even though they had already proved they had the ability to perform the more difficult task. The experiment proves that cannabis made the rats lazy.
Armed with these results, the researchers will now repeat the study on a larger scale and this time with humans. Personally, I would have preferred groups made up of people with high levels of intelligence who are known to possess plenty of ambition and enthusiasm for self-improvement and a group consisting of jobless council estate scratters, preferably Scousers, to see if the theory really holds water, which I believe it does. Having spent hundreds of hours working with drug users in Liverpool in the 1980’s, I can speak from experience. As with any scientific experiment, there will be a control group.
It is one of the immutable laws of nature that the exertion of effort is essential to achieving success and so it is logical to assume that less effort will result in less success. Of course one must also take into account the difference between working hard and working intelligently, but the study confirmed that users are less likely to choose tasks that require more effort if they are stoned. No big surprise then, but if only for the sake of completeness, this is how they did it:
Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the group (who were already occasional smokers) were given the equivalent of one joint. They were then given a choice of two relatively simple tasks that would earn them different amounts of money.
The low-effort option involved pressing the space bar of a computer keyboard with their little finger 30 times in 7 seconds. If they were able to do this, they would win 50p.
The high-effort option involved the slightly more difficult task of pressing the space bar 100 times in 21 seconds, this time for a reward of £2. The group also repeated the test using a placebo vapour.
In the cannabis test, the by then stoned volunteers chose the high-effort option only 42% of the time, but in the placebo test, the participants chose the high-effort option 50% of the time. Humans have greater reasoning powers than rats and so the 8% difference is significant.
In the second experiment, 20 regular dope-smokers were pitched against 20 people who had never smoked cannabis. These participants were not allowed to consume alcohol or drugs, other than tobacco or coffee, for 12 hours before the study. In my view, coffee may have affected the results because caffeine perks people up – the opposite effect of cannabis – and therefore I believe the test is flawed. Nevertheless, both groups were again asked to perform the same task. No big surprise – the non-smokers came out on top.
It cannot be denied that cannabis results in a significant increase in can’t-be-bothered-ness. It must be by now blindingly obvious that cannabis impairs decision-making and the desire to try harder. I would like to have seen the experiment extended to discover how the drug affects attention span and memory, but no such luck.
Cannabis is a depressant drug which slows you down – it affects reaction times and changes the way you think. Gone is any sense of urgency or drive so it’s not surprising that users end up less motivated.
Some smokers have told me that smoking cannabis made them more cautious and less likely to take risks. Again, there may be other factors coming into play here, such as environment or fear of losing a job or getting stopped and searched by the police. Possibly that’s another reason they prefer to stay at home. Some addicts told me they felt uncomfortable in the company of people they didn’t know, or who didn’t know them. A lot of users claimed they were more likely to drive carefully and within the speed limit when they had been smoking weed than they were normally, but of course that does not include driving at 25 mph on the motorway so as not to draw attention to yourself, a common mistake apparently.
So even smoking just one joint can reduce motivation in the short term and habitual abuse can reduce motivation long term. If you’re smoking every day, then it seems you can wave goodbye to the realisation of any ambitions you once held and better life chances you could have enjoyed.
It is well known that high achieving teenagers who smoke even small amounts see their grades drop very quickly – from top of the class to bottom often in a matter of weeks. The same can be said of high achieving professionals, although interestingly not in all cases. This is because there are many other factors that play a part in achievement, such as luck, the support of other dedicated workers, and personality. And there’s another question… could it be that those predisposed to ambition and hard work can remain unaffected, unlike those who lack motivation to begin with?
More research needs to be done to find out, but for the time being we have to accept an inconvenient truth: the vast majority of users are from lower income groups where job satisfaction is around zero on the job satisfaction scale, presuming of course they can be bothered to get one in the first place.
We also have to accept (and this is going to be extremely unpopular with the lefties) that most people do not have the imagination or the drive necessary to start successful businesses or to become lawyers, surgeons or airline pilots. But if they come from a background of poorer education, of unemployment and benefits where there are far fewer opportunities, they are statistically more likely to sit around getting stoned. And that’s the real truth of the matter.
It makes no difference whether cannabis is smoked or eaten in hash cakes and biscuits – it has the same destructive effect on memory. This goes beyond simply affecting motivation. The active ingredient that gives smokers the zapped-out stoned feeling they enjoy so much (THC) damages brain circuits and causes significant long-term damage.
As we grow, our brains develop, constantly forming and reinforcing new connections between neurons that strengthen memory and link new experiences to old, helping us hone the skills we need to negotiate the world.
The thalamus, located in the centre of the brain, projects to the rest of the cortex to create neural circuits and these projections develop as we grow. In order for memory to be strengthened, the thalamus and cortex function and work together in unison, building connections and strengthening the synapses. As the brain develops, projections from the thalamus to the cortex spread even further.
During this process, our capacity for attention and information retention becomes sharper. It is these mechanisms that clear out non-essential projections, leaving only correct ones. In other words, the brain is able to remember important information whilst at the same time, discarding the trivia.
But cannabis stymies the formation of the same neural circuits responsible for our short-term memory that helps us remember what someone just said or where we parked the car! These connections also provide the foundations of long-term memory. The active agents in weed that get you stoned release chemicals that also eliminate excess synapses, repressing neurons and connections responsible for memory. Weed destroys the connections that form memory circuits and this creates gaps. It’s why dope smokers often have to pause mid sentence so they can remember what they were saying!
Researchers led by Dr Fumitaka Kimura at Osaka University have been able to identify several of these neural circuits and has raised serious concerns about how cannabis use affects the brain long-term, particularly in light of recent legalisation in some US states.
The medicinal effects of cannabis are now better understood and in the UK the Government has legalised cannabis for medicinal use and health officials accept that the drug has a restorative effect on the body. Cannabinoid, (CBD) is now classed as a medicine by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) the UK regulatory body. There are now several UK companies licensed to grow cannabis.
The decision follows a review of a cannabinoid vapour dispenser that has been found to help thousands of people suffering from a range of conditions, most notably multiple sclerosis. CBD can help to control brain and nerve activity, energy metabolism, heart function, the immune system and even reproduction, but CBD by itself does not provide the high that users want. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the other hand, does, and medical practitioners can now legally prescribe it to ease muscle spasms.
One positive effect of this decision is that manufacturers will have to ensure their cannabis-based products are safe and the decision has encouraged a number of charities to intensify their research into the use of cannabis as a medicinal drug.
In a further development, a cross-party group of MPs and peers have stated that sick people should be allowed to grow the drug under licence. The All-Party Parliamentary Group for Drug Policy Reform also wants ministers to strip away some of the legal controls so that cannabis becomes less regulated than some prescription painkillers.
The bad news is that cannabis is also linked to brittle bones. A study carried out by the University of Edinburgh has found that heavy cannabis smokers run a higher risk of osteoporosis and more fragile spines and hips later in life. The bone-thinning side effect, which affects an estimated three million people in Britain, sees half a million admitted to hospital with fractures every year. Most users are unaware of this, but it serves to add to evidence of its harmful effects along with psychosis, schizophrenia and short-term memory loss.
THC, the ingredient that gets you high, causes the body to reabsorb bone faster than it can be regenerated. Heavy cannabis users weigh less for their height because of their reduced bone density because cannabinoid receptors in the body react to the drug, affecting bone mass and bone cell function.
This new research, led by Professor Stuart Ralston of the University of Edinburgh’s Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine and funded by Arthritis Research UK is published in the American Journal of Medicine.
Researchers looked at 170 cannabis smokers recruited from primary care such as doctor’s appointments in UK inner cities between 2011 and 2014. Compared with 114 people who did not smoke cannabis, X-rays showed that heavy users had 5% lower bone density in their hips and spines than cigarette smokers who did not use the drug. They also suffered fractures and breaks more often.
For the purposes of the research, heavy cannabis use was defined as having smoked the drug on more than 5,000 occasions over a lifetime. Many regular cannabis users in fact smoke a lot more than that! Regular smokers go through at least two joints a day, every day, 365 days a year… that means that some people may smoke more than 20,000 joints in a lifetime. I have come across people who smoke up to 10 joints a day!
The current wisdom is that long-term cannabis use poses a greater health risk than class A drugs. This may at first seem illogical.
Unlike heroin addicts, who quickly lose weight, dope smokers at least eat regular meals. Many smokers have steady jobs and are not forced to commit crime or turn to prostitution in order to get their fix, but heroin addict’s lives revolve around the drug – their very existence is wholly dependent on getting more heroin. Heroin addicts have no other interests in life outside their addiction, which is all consuming, so much so that they end up estranged from close family and friends. Dope smokers on the other hand continue to enjoy healthy relationships and can go for days or weeks or months without smoking. It’s the lifestyle of heroin addiction that does for them in the end.
Smokers rarely end up in prison and they don’t share needles, with all the health risks that entails. Heroin costs up to a thousand times more than cannabis and some addicts can easily spend £200 or more a day! Weed on the other hand is dirt cheap and if you grow your own, as many people now do, it’s free!
But there is already evidence that new and more potent super-strength strains of cannabis such as skunk, are the cause of one in four cases of psychosis. Because of its strength, skunk is now the smoker’s preferred choice. The result of this upgrade is that users are now five times more likely to develop schizophrenia as someone who has never smoked it. This compares to 1.9 times for hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD and 1.24 times for amphetamines.
Researchers led by Dr Carsten Hjorthøj at Copenhagen University Hospital’s Mental Health Centre trawled the medical records of more than 3.1million people in order to study links between cannabis use and schizophrenia. The study looked at people who were cannabis abusers and had been diagnosed by their doctors as schizophrenic.
In a follow up study, the researchers discovered that pregnant women who used cannabis gave birth to children who were then six times more likely to become schizophrenic, suggesting the physical effects of the drug can be passed on in the womb. This is a prima facia case of child abuse if ever there was one.
More than nine million people in England and Wales have smoked cannabis at some point. Pro-cannabis campaigners say the drug cannot be proven to cause psychosis, claiming that some smokers may already be schizophrenic before they started using cannabis and thus more likely to take the drug in the early stages of illness to calm themselves. This is again, in my view, an incorrect assumption. Cannabis releases the pleasure hormone dopamine – schizophrenia is a disorder of the brain linked to dopamine and cannabis affects dopamine levels.
Despite what I have always maintained about cannabis not being addictive, the new super-strength skunk may indeed be twice as addictive as normal kinds of cannabis. Skunk now makes up most of the cannabis sold on Britain’s streets and grown privately.
Dr Tom Freeman, who headed a study conducted by University College London, says that skunk can lead to dependency for 43% of those who smoke it as opposed to just 22% for those who prefer the less potent strain.
16 to 23-year-olds are now exposed to cannabis that is far stronger than the cannabis available two decades ago. The illicit cannabis market is now dominated by high-potency skunk – its greater addictiveness derives from its higher levels of THC, the constituent that gives smokers the high. It is THC that ramps up the properties of cannabis that make people dependent. Skunk has little CBD, which dampens its effects.
From occasional marijuana use to indulging every day increases the risk of psychosis and/or depression by a staggering 159% because the two conditions are linked. Frequent abuse of Marijuana also significantly reduces users ability to resist socially unacceptable behaviour, such as sudden bad-tempered outbursts and violence if provoked.
Research carried out at the University of Montreal and published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry confirms that becoming a more regular marijuana user during adolescence is associated with increased risk of psychotic symptoms. Symptoms may be infrequent and so not necessarily problematic for the adolescent, but when these experiences are reported continuously, year after year, there is an increased risk of a first psychotic episode or another psychiatric condition.
Researchers led by study author Josiane Bourque analysed around 4,000 13-year-olds from 31 high schools in the Vancouver area. Every year for four years, the study’s participants completed questionnaires about any substance abuse and psychotic experiences. Symptoms included perceptual aberration, such as feeling that something external was part of their body or thinking that they had been unjustly or badly treated. The participants also completed cognitive tasks that allowed the researchers to assess their IQ, memory and stimuli response.
An increased risk of depression – symptoms of which include negative thoughts and low mood – could explain the relationship between frequent marijuana use and the increase in psychotic-like experiences in youth.
Although drug-induced psychosis is most commonly associated with LSD or amphetamines, it can also be caused by marijuana, cocaine and alcohol. According to a report published by Addictions.com, marijuana is America’s favourite recreational drug, making up more than 70% of all drug use. One result of this free for all is that researchers are struggling to keep up with the pace of legalisation.
The legalisation of cannabis in the United States has given rise to a booming industry of dispensaries, cannabis ‘healthcare professionals’ and drug paraphernalia. In California, medical marijuana can be used as a treatment for anxiety. In other states, anyone suffering from anxiety or depression can apply for a medical marijuana license if their condition is considered to be severe and debilitating. But meticulous research shows that increased risk of depression as a result of frequent marijuana use is thought to be behind the onset of psychosis. Many people are using the drug to self-medicate for things like depression and anxiety despite research showing that in the long run, it does more harm than good.
Psychosis is defined as a condition that affects the mind and causes the sufferer to lose touch with reality. Symptoms include:
- delusions and hallucinations
- feelings of paranoia and suspiciousness
- disorganised thinking and speaking
- loss of or decreased motivation
- loss of or decreased ability to initiate or come up with new ideas
- difficulties expressing emotion
There is no doubt that psychosis and depression are linked. Frequent abuse also significantly reduces a user’s ability to resist socially unacceptable behaviour when provoked – even when not under the influence of the drug. In fact tempers are more likely to flare in users when the marijuana is absent. There are of course different variables such as how long it’s been used, when a user first started, how concentrated or potent the marijuana they are using is and how they are taking it.
If all this isn’t bad enough, marijuana use increases the risk of dying from high blood pressure by more than three times. The more cannabis is used, the more the risk increases. Results suggest that marijuana use is more dangerous for heart health than tobacco, despite campaigners insisting the opposite.
A study carried out by Georgia State University has investigated whether the health benefits of so-called ‘medicinal’ marijuana outweigh the potential health, social and economic risks.
The researchers studied 1,213 people aged 20 or over who had been involved in a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In 2005 and 2006, the study’s participants were asked if they had ever used marijuana and if so, how old they were when they first started. Information on cigarette smoking was also collected and this data was collated with mortality statistics from the US National Centre for Health Statistics.
The results revealed that marijuana users are 3.42 times more at risk of high blood pressure-related death than non-users. This risk increases by 1.04 times for every year of cannabis use.
Marijuana stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, leading to increases in heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen demand, even more so than cigarettes, but no link was found between using marijuana and dying from heart disease.
This research was published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology and could have implications in the US, where eight states have legalised marijuana and others are considering legalisation. Support for liberal marijuana use is partly due to claims that it can be beneficial for certain conditions such as multiple sclerosis and no more harmful to health than tobacco or alcohol. Despite the widely held belief that cannabis is benign, this research adds to previous work suggesting otherwise.
In conclusion, we know from previous research that marijuana exerts an effect on the brain, heart and lungs and because it affects a person’s circulatory system, marijuana can increase the chances of heart attack or stroke. It can increase heart rate and blood pressure and exacerbate chest pains that some people experience while exercising. We also know the drug impacts a person’s mental faculties by affecting reaction time, ability to focus, decision-making abilities and emotions. Researchers at the University of South Australia have discovered cannabis use can result in subtle changes in the way you move, affecting the way your knees, elbows and shoulders move when you walk.
However, marijuana has been proven to ease pain and nausea that are caused by some medial treatments. Marijuana for medical use is now legal in 30 US states, including Washington, DC because research has proved it can help ease side effects of intense medical treatments. In some states, people may be eligible to use medical marijuana if they suffer from Crohn’s disease, Tourettes, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and anorexia.
There is an obvious conflict here. I am of the opinion that medical cannabis/marijuana should be available to those who need it to manage their pain and ease suffering, but there is also an overwhelming body of evidence that indicates long-term harmful effects. In that case, marijuana is also an instrument of self-harm and its legalization for recreational use is unwise. Governments take note.
It is commonly accepted that marijuana makes users so ‘chilled out’ that their resulting torpor is confused with laziness. In many cases, regular users do become lazy and unambitious. When stoned, the general rule of thumb applies – never do today what you can put off until tomorrow.
But previous research also suggests that weed adversely affects sexual performance and may be a cause of sexual dysfunction. But a new study has found the opposite to be true. Some studies found that weed affects sperm count and erectile function, but others have shown that it stimulates sexual arousal.
New research from the Stanford University School of Medicine has found that cannabis users have 20% more sex than non-users. An analysis of more than 50,000 Americans aged between 25 and 45 revealed that frequent marijuana use doesn’t impair sexual motivation or performance. If anything, according to the study’s senior author Michael Eisenberg MD, assistant professor of urology, getting stoned is associated with increased sexual activity.
The most recent data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (US) shows that more than 20 million American adults use marijuana and numbers are rocketing as more states legalise the drug for both recreational and medical use. Marijuana is now legal in 29 states.
Participants in the study were questioned on how many times they’d had sex in the previous month, and how much marijuana they had consumed over the year. The instances of marijuana increasing sexual activity applied to both sexes, all races, ages, education levels, income groups, religions, health status, marital status and whether or not they had children.
They found that 24.5% of men and 14.5% of women reported a higher frequency of sexual intercourse than those who hadn’t. Overall, women who did not use marijuana had sex around 6 times a month, compared to those who did – they had sex an average of 7.1 times a month. The difference was more striking in men. Non-marijuana users had sex 5.6 times a month, whereas daily users had sex an average of 6.9 times a month. Overall, marijuana use increased sexual activity by an average of 20%.
Although the research does not categorically prove weed directly boosts sexual activity, it does call into question previous studies that suggest the opposite.
It could of course be that there is a link between marijuana use and a greater sexual desire – one already present in those who also wish to experiment with drugs. Or, it could be that users are naturally less sexually inhibited or become less sexually inhibited. Or it could be that in the absence of anything better to do, they engage in more sex because they have more time on their hands. It could also be that the old adage ‘idle hands make the devil’s work’ is true. After all, if you’ve got nothing to do except pass the time while high on drugs there’s always the allure of instant gratification? And in the absence of anything else to think about, other forms of experimentation will inevitably present themselves.
The above research was published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine, October 2017.
Copyright Andrew Newton 2016. All rights reserved.